79 years ago Mexico seized its oil

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While foreign companies are richer with Mexican Petroleum, they refused to pay taxes that pointed out the law and didn't improve the wages of their workers. | Photo: Excelsior

The trade unionist struggle was the main driving force behind the nationalization of oil in Mexico. Were them workers who tired of them low salaries, the inhuman days labor and them scarce conditions of security, denounced the exploitation of them companies foreign.
While foreign companies are richer with Mexican Petroleum, they refused to pay taxes that pointed out the law and didn’t improve the wages of its workers, who were well below the foreigners.
In 1936, the single trade union of oil workers – whose Foundation the general was due to that in 1934 Lázaro Cárdenas promoted the creation of trade unions – he led a series of dialogues with the business owners in search of better wages for workers, but despite the intervention of the Government these conversations were infructiferas.
These injustices led to the strike on May 31, 1937 to demand a wage increase of 90 percent, a 40-hour day, right to health, and the inability to pay. The strike had numerous examples of solidarity of the Mexican people. Energy, rail, and textile industry also lived a similar situation.
After ten months on strike, the workers returned to their activities through the mediation of President Cárdenas, who named a Commission of inquiry which determined that between 1934 and 1938 the oil companies had committed countless tax evasion and retrieved profits of up to 150 million pesos.
In view of the clear abuse of companies, general Cardenas proposed an increase of 26 million pesos in salaries dropped the strike carried out between May 31 to June 9, 1937, but the companies refused. 
Before the indifference with regard to the situation of them workers Mexican, the Supreme Court of Justice also intervened and, after study the case, ordered the increased wage. As it was to be expected, companies also obeyed and finally nationalized oil.

The night of March 18, 1938 came the announcement that changed the history of Mexico. He general Lázaro Cárdenas reported to them means of communication the nationalization oil, that consisted in the appropriation legal of the resource that until then exploited 17 companies foreign.
Machinery, wells and refineries became property of the nation. On June 7 of that year PEMEX was created as a body responsible for exploit and manage hydrocarbon for the benefit of the people.

 
History the town reverts Mexican recalls with pride the year 1938 because oil sovereignty was achieved, but today the threat of foreign companies again to take a look.
In December of 2013 was enacted the reform energy by the President Enrique Peña Nieto, which allows that companies private, national or foreign invest in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in soil Mexican. These activities had been exclusive of the State from the oil nationalization in 1938.
The ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the Green Party and national action (PAN) totaled 95 votes in favor to put an end to the energy policy of Lázaro Cárdenas, which resulted from the trade unionist struggle.
The petroleum energy reform will remain property of the nation. However, the reform modified three articles of the Constitution Mexican, what allows the participation of companies private to the industry energy Mexican through contracts with the State, that may be of services, utility and production shared, as well as of licenses. 
The amended text also gives companies freedom to use land that have owners, by the payment of a percentage of the profits obtained by the exploitation of oil or gas. This measure affects mainly peasants.
The law also gives green light to the use of the technique of the fracking (hydraulic fracturing) for the exploitation of gas from shale or schist. This method pollutes the environment, and may even cause earthquakes.
Proponents argue the reform gives priority to Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to choose sites, with the permission of the CNH. But his detractors believe that to change to Pemex must not be allowed this broad intervention of foreign companies, because it will increase poverty, it will bring unemployment, capital flight, and destruction of the national heritage.
Those same factors were the propellers of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, while the disrespect of foreign companies to the rights of their workers brought the oil nationalization in 1938.